Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Magnetic robots walk, crawl, and swim | Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a renowned private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was established in 1861 and has played a pivotal role in advancing various fields of modern technology and science.

In response to the growing industrialization in the United States, Massachusetts Institute of Technology adopted a European polytechnic university model that emphasized practical laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It is one of three private land-grant universities in the country, along with Cornell University and Tuskegee University.

The university’s urban campus stretches over a mile alongside the Charles River and includes prominent off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory. Additionally, it has affiliations with renowned research institutes like the Broad and Whitehead Institutes.

As of December 2021, Massachusetts Institute of Technology boasts an impressive roster of affiliations, including 100 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists, who have been associated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers.

Furthermore, it has been home to 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 83 Marshall Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force, and numerous heads of state.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) fosters a vibrant entrepreneurial culture, with many notable companies founded or co-founded by its alumni.

The university is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) and has received more Sloan Research Fellowships and Hertz Fellowships than any other academic institution.


Foundation and Vision:

In 1859, there was a proposal to establish a “Conservatory of Art and Science” on newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston, but it failed to materialize.

However, on April 10, 1861, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was officially incorporated through a charter signed by Governor John Albion Andrew.

The proposal for its establishment was put forward by William Barton Rogers, a graduate of William and Mary and a professor at the University of Virginia. Rogers envisioned an institution that would address the rapid advancements in science and technology.

Rather than creating a purely professional school, he aimed to combine elements of professional and liberal education.

According to Rogers, the primary objective of a polytechnic school is to teach the scientific principles underlying the arts and provide a comprehensive review of their processes and operations in conjunction with physical laws.

The Rogers Plan was influenced by the German research university model, which emphasized independent faculty engagement in research, along with seminar-based and laboratory-focused instruction.

Early Developments:

Shortly after Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s charter was established, the Civil War broke out, resulting in a delay in commencing classes. Eventually, in 1865, MIT held its first classes in the Mercantile Building in Boston.

As a land-grant school, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was founded under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, which aimed to fund institutions focused on promoting the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts also established the Massachusetts Agricultural College in 1863, which later evolved into the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

In 1866, funds from land sales were utilized to construct new buildings in the Back Bay area. During this time, MIT was informally known as “Boston Tech.”

The university adopted the European polytechnic model and placed significant emphasis on laboratory instruction from an early stage. Despite financial difficulties, MIT experienced growth in the late 19th century under the leadership of President Francis Amasa Walker.

New programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, leading to the construction of additional buildings and an increase in the student population.

However, the curriculum gradually shifted towards a vocational focus, reducing the emphasis on theoretical science. MIT faced financial challenges that diverted the attention of its leadership.

Despite attempts by Harvard University President Charles W. Eliot, a former MIT faculty member, to merge MIT with Harvard’s Lawrence Scientific School, MIT’s faculty, students, and alumni rejected the proposals.

MIT’s limited space in the Back Bay area prevented the expansion of its overcrowded facilities, leading to a desperate search for a new campus and funding. In 1916, MIT moved across the Charles River to its current campus, known as the “New Technology” campus.

The neoclassical campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and was predominantly funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious benefactor known as “Mr. Smith.”

In 1920, it was revealed that the generous donor was George Eastman, the industrialist who founded Eastman Kodak and made significant contributions to film production and processing.

Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million (equivalent to $236.6 million in 2015) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. A plaque in Building 6 commemorates his contributions to maintaining MIT’s independence.

MIT’s rich history, commitment to scientific and technological advancements, and its collaborative and innovative environment have established it as a leading institution in the realm of higher education and research.

Organization and Administration:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) operates as a non-profit organization and is governed by the MIT Corporation, a board of trustees appointed privately. The board comprises 43 members elected to five-year terms, 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday, 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary), and 4 ex officio members.

The board is chaired by Diane Greene, co-founder and former CEO of VMware and former CEO of Google Cloud. The Corporation has the authority to approve the budget, new programs, degrees, faculty appointments, and the selection of the President, who serves as the university’s chief executive officer and oversees the faculty.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s financial assets, including its endowment, are managed by MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo). As of 2018, MIT’s endowment was valued at $16.4 billion, ranking it as the sixth-largest among American colleges and universities.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) consists of five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Schwarzman College of Computing).

However, it does not have schools of law or medicine. While faculty committees exert significant control over various aspects of MIT’s curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs, the chair of each academic department reports to the dean of their respective school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.

The current President is Sally Kornbluth, a cell biologist and former provost at Duke University, who assumed the role in January 2023. She succeeded L. Rafael Reif, who had served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.


Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a large research university with a predominantly graduate and professional enrollment. It has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.

The academic calendar at MIT follows a 4–1–4 structure, with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week “Independent Activities Period” in January, and the spring semester starting in early February and concluding in late May.

Students at MIT often refer to their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms. Departments and majors are assigned numbers based on their establishment date.

For example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is referred to as Course 1, while Linguistics and Philosophy is Course 24.

Students in the popular department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science collectively identify themselves as “Course 6.” Course numbers and class numbers are combined to identify subjects.

For instance, the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is known as “8.01” (pronounced eight-oh-one) at MIT.

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Undergraduate Program:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s undergraduate program spans four years and offers a well-rounded education with a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences. The university has been recognized as “most selective” by U.S. News, with a low acceptance rate and a need-blind admissions policy for both domestic and international applicants.

MIT grants Bachelor of Science degrees (abbreviated as “SB”) and offers 44 undergraduate majors across its five schools. In the 2017–2018 academic year, 1,045 SB degrees were awarded. The School of Engineering was the most popular division among undergraduate students, enrolling 63% of students across its 19 degree programs.

Other popular divisions included the School of Science, School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences, Sloan School of Management, and School of Architecture and Planning. The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Computer Science and Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics.


Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a leading institution recognized for its extensive research activities. It became a member of the Association of American Universities in 1934 and is classified as an “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity.”

In 2017, research expenditures at Massachusetts Institute of Technology amounted to $952 million. The federal government played a significant role as the largest sponsor of research, with grants from agencies such as the Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and NASA.

In addition to its faculty, MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers. The university’s researchers and faculty are highly productive, with numerous inventions, patents, and commercial ventures emerging from their work.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has a rich history of groundbreaking research in various fields. In the realm of electronics, MIT researchers have made significant contributions to the development of magnetic-core memory, radar, single-electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls.

Harold Eugene Edgerton pioneered high-speed photography and sonar, while Claude E. Shannon revolutionized information theory and its application to digital circuit design using Boolean logic.

In computer science, MIT faculty and researchers have played pivotal roles in cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography. The university boasts several Turing Award laureates and recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering among its current and former faculty.

MIT’s achievements in physics have been remarkable, with eight Nobel Prizes, four Dirac Medals, and three Wolf Prizes awarded to current and past faculty for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.

The chemistry department has also received recognition, earning three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for discoveries in novel syntheses and methods. MIT biologists have made significant advancements in genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology, resulting in six Nobel Prizes.

Notable contributions include Professor Eric Lander’s leadership in the Human Genome Project. Several significant discoveries and advancements in fields like positronium atoms, synthetic penicillin, self-replicating molecules, and the genetic bases for diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease have originated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

MIT’s influence extends into humanities, arts, and social sciences. Economists affiliated with MIT have been awarded seven Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals. Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle have authored influential texts on generative grammar and phonology.

The MIT Media Lab, known for its unconventional research, has housed renowned researchers such as Seymour Papert, a constructivist educator and creator of Logo.

The notable achievements of Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s faculty have been recognized through numerous prestigious honors. Fifty individuals associated with MIT have received MacArthur Fellowships (also known as “Genius Grants”), and the university has been home to five Pulitzer Prize-winning writers.

Additionally, four current or former faculty members are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. While MIT has achieved significant research success, there have been instances of alleged research misconduct or improprieties.

Nobel Laureate Professor David Baltimore faced a misconduct investigation in 1986, which resulted in Congressional hearings in 1991. Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration of potential research misconduct related to a ballistic missile defense test at the Lincoln Lab facility.

Similarly, Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct, and the United States Office of Research Integrity found him guilty of the same in 2009.

In 2019, MIT’s faculty members received further recognition as 54 of them were named “Highly Cited Researchers” by Clarivate Analytics, positioning Massachusetts Institute of Technology as the eighth-ranked university worldwide in terms of highly cited researchers.


Q. How much is MIT tuition per year?

55,878 USD (2021 – 22)

Q. How is MIT ranked in the world?

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is one of the top private universities in Cambridge, United States. It is ranked #1 in QS World University Rankings 2024.

Q. Which is No 1 university in world?

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Rank 1. Stanford University: Rank 3. Harvard University: Rank 5. Caltech: Rank 6.

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